work until it is reactivated.
This Concept Map, created with IHMC CmapTools, has information related to: Cognitivism, Cognitivism embodys Orientation Activities Orienting activities prior to a learning task help learners to focus on new information, cut down the time needed to process information, and improve learning efficiency. Text, aural or visual cueing aim to hold new information longer in short-term memory for active engagement., Cognitivism embodys Problem-based Instruction/Learning Learning is organized around problem solving, rather than around subject matter. The teacher's role is to support students in their critical thinking skills, self-directed learning skills, and content knowledge in relation to problems. The teacher does not teach students what they should know or set a time for when they should know it., Cognitivism embodys Assessment in Context of Learning In traditional settings, assessment is done after learning occurs. In a constructivist framework, assessment is embedded within an activity and must be in a context of problem solving. The distinction between learning and testing becomes blurred., Cognitivism embodys Active Engagement Learners are expected to analyze, synthesize, summarize, describe, and solve problems. They are expected to build hypotheses, explanations, definitions, categories, rules, and so on, through study of examples and reflection on their own experiences. To help them, instruction uses frequent decision points and direct involvement in games, microworlds, and simulations with results of decisions seen immediately., Cognitivism embodys Discovery Learning The goal of discovery learning is learning to learn, including the ability to question, evaluate one's strategies, and answer questions in the content domain. Discovery learning is not necessary to learn definitions, procedures and outcomes from an existing body of knowledge., Cognitivism embodys Scaffolding Scaffolding, based on Vygotsky's definition of zone of proximal development, is the gradual removal of a tutor's support for the individual to become an independent problem solver as the individual appropriates knowledge and brings it under his/her own conscious control., Cognitivism embodys Instructor as Coach The instructor-coach may be more knowledgeable and as mentor seek to expand a learner's current conceptions. Each seeks to understand the other's views. In the end, the learner may not mimic the coach, but the learner can defend and the coach can respect the other view., Cognitivism embodys Metacognitive Devices Metacognitive devices such as advice statements, help facilities, suggestions for more effective engagement and processing of information are employed. Providing a metacognitive framework is not easy, however. Much depends on the ability of learners to use such features., Cognitivism embodys Cooperative Learning Groups work together to solve problems. The goal is to share, challenge, and form alternative viewpoints., Cognitivism embodys Learner Control Giving learners control over pacing, sequence, and actual content of information presented is based on assumptions that learners know what is best for them and are capable of acting appropriately on that knowledge. If learners do not meet either assumption, then the computer or teacher is given control of content and learner tasks., Cognitivism embodys Advance Organizers Advance organizers or anchoring concepts are introduced at the start of material to help learners make sense of information that follows. According to Ausubel (1960), however, the pedagogic value of advance organizers depends in part upon how well material is organized. Advance organizers probably facilitate incorporation and longevity of verbal material in two ways. First, they activate whatever relevant concepts are already established in the learner's cognitive structure to increase the task's familiarity and meaningfulness. Second, appropriate advance organizers provide optimal anchorage, which promotes initial incorporation of new material and its later resistance to obliteration. If appropriately relevant concepts are not present, learners use whatever concepts are available.